In response to evolving threats and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, the United States began moving its alert, detection, and surveillance into space. This change in centre of gravity has reduced the importance of Canadian geography throughout North American aerospace defence strategy. A revision of the 1992 norad strategy indicated that, although the Soviet Union no longer existed, its successor states, especially Russia, still had the weapons against which norad should protect. The verification also highlighted the risk of a possible terrorist attack with cruise missiles or similar weapons. Accordingly, in carrying out their national and reciprocal defence responsibilities within the North Atlantic Treaty Organization for the security of Canada and the United States, our two governments have decided to implement a program to modernize the North American air defence system. The elements of this program and the respective responsibilities of each government are set out in the attached Memorandum of Understanding on the Modernization of the North American Air Defence System, which is an integral part of this agreement and was signed today by the United States Minister of Defence and the Canadian Minister of Defence. It is also recognized that: 2. The components of the North American air defense modernization program are: NORAD has been maintained by successive governments. The change of name of the command in 1981 reflected a new emphasis on missile defense and warning. The appearance of cruise missiles has also increased the need for NORAD. The Canadian government realized this in 1985 when it replaced the Distant Early Warning Line (DEW), built in the 1950s, with the North Warning System, a series of radars in northern Canada.
18. Cadin-Pinetree line. Canada and the United States intend to denounce the CADIN Pinetree agreements on the basis of the following principles. On November 1, 2011, the FPDA`s 40th anniversary celebrations were held in Singapore, during which defence ministers, aircraft and soldiers from the five signatory countries gathered at Changi Air Base (east) to participate in the event. Later, a gala dinner was held by Singapore`s Minister of Defence, Mr. Ng Eng Hen, at the Istana in Singapore, after which they asked the Prime Minister of Singapore, Mr. Lee Hsien Loong, to discuss a large number of topics. The three-day joint exercise, dubbed Exercise Bersama Lima, tested the availability and cooperation among all participating countries and ended on 4 November 2011.  Joint CIS Air Defense System (Russian: Объединённая система ПВО СНГ) is a unique system that includes air defense units and elements of the former Soviet republics under the control of the AA Defense Coordinating of the CIS Commission. There are currently 6 de facto members of JADS: Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia and Tajikistan. It was created in 1995 by almaty convention.
This agreement was also signed by Georgia, Turkmenistan, Ukraine and Uzbekistan, but Georgia and Turkmenistan ended their accession in 1997, while Uzbekistan maintains its cooperation with Russia on a bilateral basis. NORAD has sometimes been one of the axes of controversy. In 1957, Prime Minister John Diefenbaker and the just-appointed Minister of Defence George Pearkes hastily accepted the Canadian Army Council and agreed to integrate the RCAF into the USAF for the continent`s air defence. Critics felt that the decision was made without adequate preparation (the formal signing did not take place until May 12, 1958, an indication of subsequent concerns) and the Conservative Diefenbaker government was roasted by the Liberal opposition for its haste. . . .