In the University of London/Morrissey case, the Employment Appeal Tribunal (EAT) found that the University of London breached information and consultation of workers` regulations in 2004 when it asked two recognised unions, whose members represent about 25% of the workforce, to appoint workers` representatives. Just because the union accepted the amendment does not mean that the amendment is legal. There are many examples of case law in which employers, with the support of unions, introduced changes (or, in fact, where the union insisted that the change be made), and the amendment subsequently proved discriminatory. There are provisions that are recorded in collective agreements that are not regulated by legislation. These issues include travel expenses, vacation bonuses, extra days off (called « pekkasvapaat ») or sick or maternity leave benefits. The compensation system is an integral part of the collective agreement as it defines minimum wages. What would be the consequences of a union with an employer agreeing to a change in working time under a collective agreement and no other workers dispute the change or complain? Collective bargaining and the voice of workers are important workers` rights and potentially powerful facilitators of an inclusive labour market. As digital transformation, globalization and demographic changes reorganize the labour market, collective bargaining is well positioned to find solutions to the collective challenges that lie ahead. Yet their ability to provide is threatened by the weakening of labour relations in many countries, the prosperity of new forms of employment, often more precarious, and the gradual individualization of labour relations. The right to collective bargaining is recognized by international human rights conventions. Article 23 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights describes the ability to organize fundamental human rights unions.

[5] Point 2 (a) of the International Labour Organization`s statement on fundamental principles and rights in the workplace defines « freedom of association and effective recognition of the right to collective bargaining » as an essential worker`s right. [6] The 1948 Convention on Freedom of Association and the Protection of the Right to Organization (C087) and several other conventions protect collective bargaining in particular by creating international labour standards that deter countries from violating workers` right to co-association and collective bargaining. [7] Regarding the future of work: How to make the most of collective bargaining, one of the objectives of a union is to negotiate with employers issues concerning its members and other workers. Once a union is recognized in the workplace, its negotiations with the employer are called collective bargaining; these negotiations will focus on the terms of employment. In the United States, the National Labor Relations Act of 1935 made it illegal for every employer to deny trade union rights to a worker. The issue of unionization of government employees in a public sector union was much more controversial until the 1950s.